Alienation is a prominent term in twentieth century social theory and social criticism ,reffering to any of various social and psychological evils which are characterized by a harmful separation,disruption or fragmentation which sunders things that properly belong together.people are alienated from one another when there is an interruption in their mutual affection or reciprocal understanding;they are alienated from political process when they fell separated from them and powerless in relation to them.Reflection on your beliefs or values can also alienate you from them by undermining your attachment to them or your identification with them ;they remain your beliefs or values faute de mieux,but are no longer yours in the way they should be. the concept of alienation was first philosophically elaborated by Hegel. as investigation continues,probabaly more forerunners of Hegel will be discovered.But it seems establised that Hegel, Feuerbach and Karl Marx were the three thinkers who first gave an explicit elaboration of alienation and whose interpretation is the starting point for all discussions of alienation in present day philosophy,sociology and psychology
محمد اکرم سرا. (2017) تصور بیگانگی اور ادب, Bazyaft, Vol 30- 31, Issue 1.