Current global workforce stands at about 2.8 billion. Workers spend about one third of their lifetime at workplace. Workers expect safe working environment as their fundamental human right. However th ... Read More

Cavernous hemangioma is a rare disorder of spleen with fewer than 100 cases reported. We describe a case of cavernous hemangioma spleen in a 40 years old woman putting emphasis on its presentation. Sh ... Read More

Erythema ab igne is a localized area of erythema and hyperpigmentation in a reticular pattern due to repeated exposure to heat. It is because of injury to the epidermis and superficial vascular plexus ... Read More

Background: Hypertensive disorder in pregnancy is a major disorder that affects the fetal and maternal prognosis. A newer adipokine, visfatin has been related in the pathogenesis of pregnancy induced ... Read More

Background: Salivary glands are seromucinous exocrine glands concerned with production and secretion of saliva. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution and histopathological pa ... Read More

Background: Eclampsia is an acute obstetric emergency carrying very high maternal morbidity and mortality risk. The objective of the study was to determin the frequency and maternal outcome of eclamps ... Read More

Background: Contrast induced nephropathy is a common form of acquired acute renal failure after coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and this is associated with prolonge h ... Read More

Background: The incidence of Non- St Elevation Myocardial Infarction NSTEMI is increasing. With the limited coronary care facilities, acute life-threatening arrhythmias is of major interest to guide t ... Read More

Background: Neonatal tetanus (NNT) is one of the childhood’s preventable diseases and a leading cause of neonatal death especially in developing countries. This study was done to determine the outcome ... Read More

Background: Thyroid hormones and thyroid stimulating hormone levels are altered in diabetes mellitus. This study aims to assess the effect of Nigella Sativa (NS) seeds on serum concentrations of these ... Read More

Pharmaceutical technologists have developed a novel oral dosage forms known as orally disintegrating tablets or fast disintegrating tablets or mouth melting tablets or mouth dissolving tablets which d ... Read More

Hypoalbuminemia is a common cause of generalized edema. Although the underlying cause can usually be identified but very rarely we may come across a case with no detectable cause either clinically or ... Read More

This young boy, 14 years of age, from tehsil Paroa, district Dera Ismail Khan is a case of bilateral microphthalmia with bilateral opaque corneae . The disease onset was congenital. The patient had no ... Read More

Background: Humerus fractures constitute about 3 to 5% of all fractures of which majority can be managed by traditional care but some of them will need surgery. The objective of this study was to dete ... Read More

Background: The employment of reject analysis as part of overall Quality Assurance (QA) programs in clinical radiography and radiology services in the evaluation of image quality is a well established ... Read More

Background: Perinatal death refers to death of fetus or newborn around the time of delivery and includes both fetal deaths (at least 20 weeks of gestation) and early neonatal deaths. The purpose of th ... Read More

Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome has typical clinical presentation. There are two types of surgeries either open or endoscopic procedures. The objective of our study was to know the distribution, ri ... Read More

Background: Infertility is a global problem and as a last resort in the investigative protocol endometrial biopsy is performed to find a clue to the cause behind it. The objective of the study was to ... Read More

Background: It is speculated that trace elements might have specific roles in the pathogenesis and progression towards type-2 diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to determine the urinar ... Read More

Background: The consanguineous relation between parents could be either maternal or paternal. The objectives of the study were to determine the frequency distribution by type of genetic eye disorders ... Read More

Background: Body Mass Index (BMI) gives information about the relative weight for a given height based upon age and sex. The objective of this study was to assess BMI among medical students and to det ... Read More

Background: Incidence of dengue has risen drastically around the world in the recent years. Severe dengue is one of the causes of critical illness and death in Asia generally and Pakistan particularly ... Read More

Background: Peritoneal carcinomatosis is a relatively common metastatic manifestation of a variety of organ-based malignancies, particularly of the ovaries and gastrointestinal tract. Objective of th ... Read More

Background: Acute poisoning including drug overdose is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency and distribution of acute poiso ... Read More

Inguinal hernia was repaired laparoscopically soon after the establishment of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Inguinal hernia repair using mesh is one of the most frequently performed operations in gene ... Read More

Small cell carcinoma of the bladder is a rare, aggressive, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasm accounting for only 0.3-0.7% of all bladder tumors. We report a case of 48 year old male presen ... Read More

ABSTRACT Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhydrosis (CIPA) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by inability to feel pain and temperature, and decreased or absent sweating. Familiarity to ... Read More

Basosquamous carcinoma (BSC) is a rare cutaneous malignancy, with mixed morphology of both basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). It was first described in 1910 by MacCormac an ... Read More

ABSTRACT Background: Phalangeal and metacarpal fractures are the most common skeletal injuries. Most of these fractures which are reducible and stable can be treated by non-operative methods like ca ... Read More

ABSTRACT Background: Upper GI bleeding is one of the most frequently encountered emergencies worldwide. This study was designed to analyze the diagnostic accuracy of upper GI endoscopy, to explore t ... Read More

Background: Cirrhosis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. It is also a frequent cause of hospital admissions. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of rifaximin ... Read More

Background: Nasal obstruction is the most common presenting complaint in ENT practice. Nasal obstruction has many adverse effects which include mouth breathing, dryness of mouth, disordered sleep and ... Read More

Background: Medicinal plants have been a source of treating fungal and bacterial infections since ancient times. According to WHO 80% of world population depends upon traditional medicine for treating ... Read More

Background: Any fever with undetermined etiology and not showing spontaneous resolution in the anticipated period of self-limited infections is known as fever of unknown origin. Bone marrow biopsy is ... Read More

Background: Normal thyroid function is necessary to maintain reproductive physiology. An abnormality in its function may be the cause of infertility manifesting as abnormal menstrual cycle. The object ... Read More

Background: Throughout the world inguinal hernia repair is frequently performed surgery in general surgical practice. The aim of this study was to compare rate of complications and results of repair o ... Read More

Background: TB can affect virtually any organ of the body and can be pulmonary or extrapulmonary. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis accounts for 20% of all TB cases with lymph nodes being the most common si ... Read More

Background: Chronic suppurative otitis media is one of the most common otological problems in developing countries. It affects all age groups. Type-1 tympanolpasty is simple repair of tympanic membran ... Read More

Background: Paraphenylenediamine (kala pathar) poisoning is an emerging way of self-harm in developing countries. The objective of this study was to explore the clinical course and outcome of patients ... Read More

The Syrian conflict is a civil war complicated by brutal violence where neither side has any regard for civilian casualties, nor does it respect the protected status of health personnel and facilities ... Read More

The preponderance of open hernia repairs makes use of the tension free mesh methods which include Lichtenstein, Stoppa, Nyhus and Rutkow. Laparoscopic repair is minimally invasive approach and the two ... Read More

Foreign bodies in the rectum is a well described phenomenon that most commonly seen in association with anal eroticism. Patients may be admitted only with rectal pain or bleeding without any history o ... Read More

A young lady of 24 years age presented with upper abdominal mass of 10 years duration. The provisional diagnosis was cyst with calcified walls following history, clinical examination and ultrasound ab ... Read More

UNUSUAL FOREIGN BODY IN URINARY BLADDER A 25-years old unmarried male complaining of dysuria and increased frequency of micturition for a week was referred to the Urology Clinic. He had history of i ... Read More

Background: Measles is acute highly contagious viral disease with potential to cause serious complications especially in malnourished children. Although safe and effective vaccine is available for its ... Read More

Background: The treatment of urethral stricture is usually not difficult but the problem lies in high rate of recurrence. All types of surgical procedures for urethral stricture have complication of s ... Read More

Background: Megaloblastic anemia is common in clinical practice in children in Pakistan. Vitamin B12 and folate deficiency are the established causes. The aim of this study was to find the frequency o ... Read More

Background: Undescended testis is the most common congenital anomaly encountered in children. There is no single successful surgical treatment option, so various surgical procedures are practiced to t ... Read More

Background: The universal treatment for fractures of midshaft of clavicle is a polysling for 4-6 weeks when it is un-displaced/minimally displaced. However, if displacement and shortening is more than ... Read More

Background: Port site hernia is a rare but potentially serious complication of laparoscopic surgeries. This study aimed to determine the frequency of port site hernias in patients undergoing laparosco ... Read More

Background: Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Pakistanis suffer from CHD at younger ages. Current preventive guidelines focus mainly on low ... Read More

Background: Asthma is a chronic allergic respiratory disease. The frequency and severity of asthma is rising in the developing countries. Severe asthma causes great morbidity and mortality affecting ... Read More

Background: To determine the diagnostic yield of closed percutaneous pleural biopsy using Abrams needle and obtaining specific diagnosis in cases of exudative pleural effusion. Material & Methods: Th ... Read More

Background: Lithium organic compounds are considered safe in use as compare to inorganic compounds of lithium for the treatment of various psychiatric disorders. The aim of present study was to check ... Read More

Background: To determine the frequency of factors leading to hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in patients with liver cirrhosis at a tertiary care hospital. Material & Methods: It is a cross-sectional obse ... Read More

Background: Supracondylar fracture of humerus in children is distinct from that of adults. Percutaneous pinning for treatment of displaced supracondylar fractures is one of the modality. This study wa ... Read More

Background: Intraocular pressure measurement (IOP) is of pivotal importance for the diagnosis and management of glaucoma. The objective of this study was to compare intraocular pressure measurement wi ... Read More