Among various risk factors, the most important is diabetes and its prime form, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and has idiosyncratic connection with coronary heart disease (CHD). Diabetes patients h ... Read More

Romano Ward syndrome is an inherited condition characterized by prolongation of QT interval, evident on electrocardiogram, associated with syncope and life threatening arrhythmias and ultimately sudd ... Read More

This young man of 26 years age, a worker at a local car wash station was brought to the clinic with accidental face exposure to high-pressure water jet at a local car wash station. He was having agon ... Read More

Background: Pediculosis is a common public health problem affecting school children. The objective of this study was to determine the overall prevalence of pediculosis in school children and comparis ... Read More

Background: This pieces of work was an experimental study with the aim to compare the occurrences of wound infection in laparoscopic as well as in open cholecystectomy. Material & Methods: In this s ... Read More

Background: Hysterectomy is the major procedure performed abdominally/vaginally. Uterovaginal (UV) prolapse is preventable but still common indication for Vaginal Hysterectomy (VH). The aim of this s ... Read More

Background: There are several different techniques for the treatment of inguinal hernias. The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate the frequency of complications of inguinal hernia re ... Read More

Background: Refractive errors are one of the commonest causes of visual impairment and disability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of different types of refractive errors. Mat ... Read More

Background: Controlled release drug delivery systems release drug at controlled rate over desired period of time. It helps to maintain constant drug concentration in plasma and improves the patient co ... Read More

Background: With increasing estrangement of young doctors from country’s health system, there is an urgent need to understand the preferences of medical students towards their career. The objective of ... Read More

Background: Enlarged thyroid is one of the commonest clinical problems usually denoted as goiter. The objective of this study is to see the histopathological pattern of enlarged thyroid lesion in pati ... Read More

Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death in the world both in developed and developing countries. Pakistanis are more prone to CAD at younger ages. There are many patien ... Read More

Background: Renal cell carcinoma is the 7th most common cancer among men and 12th among females. This study was undertaken to share our experience regarding the outcome of radical nephrectomy in the m ... Read More

Dengue strikes again Pakistan targeting Sindh province where 248 cases were reported in the third week of September out of which 244 were from Karachi according to Sindh Dengue Control Program (SDCP). ... Read More

Stable angina is one of the main manifestations of coronary artery disease. The presence of angina symptoms, a positive exercise test for myocardial ischaemia and confirmation of coronary artery ather ... Read More

Wilms’ tumor or nephroblastoma accounts for more than 95% of all kidney tumors in children. It is usually discovered during the first few years of life. It is usually unilateral but can occur bilatera ... Read More

A 50 years old man presented with visual impairment two months after undergoing extracapsular cataract extraction with intra-ocular lens (IOL) implantation. The IOL is displaced to the anterior chamb ... Read More

Background: Viscoelastic substances protect the intraocular structures against vibration and mechanical damage. However, these may cause increase in intraocular pressure. The aim of this study was to ... Read More

Background: There are various surgical techniques for hypospadias repair. The quest for an operative procedure with excellent results and minimal complications is still needed. This study was conducte ... Read More

Background: Initial management by external fixation is well-established but high incidence of pin tract infections, thermal necrosis of bone and potential of mal-union and non-union are the main compl ... Read More

Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major public health problem worldwide especially in developing countries. There is continuous change in the prevalence of MRSA due t ... Read More

Background: Hysterectomy is one of the common gynecological surgical procedures throughout the world. The objective of this study was to see the pattern of histopathological lesions in uterine corpus ... Read More

Background: Malnutrition is a major public health problem in developing countries resulting in a high mortality rate (~60%) in children less than five years age. The malnutrition also appears to be a ... Read More

Background: Spinal meningiomas are relatively rare in comparison to intracranial meningiomas. Spinal meningiomas occur more often in females than males. The goal of surgery is precise resection of the ... Read More

Background: There is widespread concern about increasing proportion of births by caesarean section. Many factors can affect the likelihood of success of vaginal birth after caesarean section. The purp ... Read More

Background: Adiponectin is an adipocytokine with antidiabetic and antiatherogenic effects. The objective of this study was to determine plasma adiponectin concentration in children and to evaluate ass ... Read More

Background: Hepatitis E virus affects young people and females in the child bearing age. This study was conducted to determine the maternal & foetal outcome in pregnant ladies with acute hepatitis E. ... Read More

Background: Environmental pollution of transition metals especially of mercury is of great concern to the researchers in medical field since long. Mercury causes oxidative stress in all the cells incl ... Read More

Background: Peptic ulcer is mostly produced due to over production of gastric acid. This study was undertaken to compare the effects of extract from fruits of medicinal plant Ammi visnaga which contai ... Read More

Background: Measles is a highly contagious infection caused by single stranded RNA Paramyxo virus. Humans are the only natural host. Epidemics of the disease may occur. Measles vaccination is importan ... Read More

Background: Every year almost 1.3 million people lose their lives as a result of road traffic accidents, contributing to above 3500 deaths per day world-wide. The aim of this study was to assess the f ... Read More

Background: Anovulatory dysfunction is a common problem and is responsible for about 40% of female infertility. Polycystic ovarian syndrome remains one of its leading causes. This trial was done to se ... Read More

Background: To determine the frequency of inflammed appendices and other pathologies by histopahtological examination of appendectomy specimens. Material & Methods: All patients presenting with pain ... Read More

Background: Inguinal hernia is the most frequent variety of hernia. Lichtenstein repair of inguinal hernia is considered the gold standard treatment, however many surgeons in our locality are reluctan ... Read More

Background: Malnutrition is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children globally. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors for primary 3rd degree malnutrition ... Read More

Influenza A (H1N1) virus is responsible for swine flu. It can easily cross the species barrier and zoonotic jumps from pigs to humans have been observed. It emerged from Mexico in 2009 and spread with ... Read More

Among many other causes of death, cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in developing countries including Pakistan. Management strategies for cardiovascular disease are constantly ... Read More

Pulmonary artery(PA) dissection is a rare but fatal pathology. Diagnosis is rarely made during life as false lumen tends to rupture resulting in cardiac tamponade and sudden death. Congenital heart d ... Read More

A 15 years old boy presented with history of agricultural trauma to his right for one month. His vision was hands movements. Slit lamp examination showed a small self sealed corneal laceration, a larg ... Read More

Background: Brain metastasis is the most common neurologic complication of systemic cancer. The aim of this study was to know about the spectrum of causes of cerebral metastasis. Material & Methods: ... Read More

Background: Private sector is providing 40% of the family planning services in Pakistan. The aim of this study was to assess the structural parameters of the quality in private family planning clinic ... Read More

Background: Placenta previa is associated with significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to determine the feto-maternal outcome of pregnancies complicated by ma ... Read More

Background: Kala Pathar poisoning has become an important cause of morbidity and mortality in our community. Because of lack of an effective antidote in this poisoning, treatment is presently focused ... Read More

Background: Treatment of displaced fractures of the distal end of radius has changed over the course of time. This study was conducted to determine the functional and radiological outcome of percutan ... Read More

Background: HIV infection can be transmitted via a variety of ways. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency distribution of gender, age grouping, marital status, and mode of trans ... Read More

Background: Majority of surgeons place a drain following thyroid surgery to evacuate collected blood and serum. The aim of this study was to compare the outcome of thyroid surgery with and without dr ... Read More

Background: Breast carcinoma is one of the ten commonest worldwide malignancies. The objective of the current study was to correlate the significance of prognostic markers and molecular subtypes with ... Read More

Background: Alternative and traditional medicines are regarded as significant but underemployed means against diseases. Myristica fragrans, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Mucuna pruriens, are among the v ... Read More

Background: Median arcuate ligament syndrome is a controversial entity because anomalous insertion of median arcuate ligament can be seen in asymptomatic individuals. Multidetector CT scanners, along ... Read More

Study of human history clearly indicates that marriage is the acceptance of a man and woman on solid principles to become life partners. It is not just for the sexual satisfaction rather it is a consi ... Read More

Osteomyelitis of zygomatico-maxillary complex is rare. We present a diabetic patient who initially reported a small cystic swelling on lower orbital margin which on exploration came out to be a subper ... Read More

Rheumatoid nodulosis refers to the presence of numerous rheumatoid nodules, usually subcutaneous, with little active sinovitis of the joints. Rheumatoid nodules are found in about a quarter of cases ... Read More

Background: Majority of pregnant woman at risk of complications especially if not addressed properly, end up at mortality. Maternal mortality is much common in developing countries as compared to deve ... Read More

Background: Urolithiasis is one of the most common urological disorders. Patients with recurrent urinary tract stones may have underlying metabolic abnormality. The objectives of this study were to de ... Read More

Background: The knowledge of the local pattern of infection in chronic suppurative otitis media is essential to enable efficacious treatment for it. The objective of the study was to study the bacteri ... Read More

Background: The spectrum of pediatric uropathogens keeps on changing frequently, particularly in tertiary care settings catering a diverse patient population. The present study was conducted to determ ... Read More

Background:For endoscopic visualization of the peritoneal cavity, pneumoperitoneum has to be created. This study was conducted to compare the mean time consumption for creation of pneumoperitonium fr ... Read More

Background: Health information is necessary for effective and efficient health service delivery, management and planning of health programs. Objective of this study was to evaluate and highlight withi ... Read More

Background: Fractures of shaft of femur are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to compare outcome of static and dynamic interlocking nailing in closed femoral sh ... Read More

Background: Malaria is commonly associated with various clinical and haematological findings. The study was conducted to evaluate clinical and haematological findings in common types of malaria. Mate ... Read More

Background: Lead is a poisonous metal and is widely used in daily life. Increased use of lead in industry, and its excessive inhalation and ingestion can adversely affect the major biological function ... Read More

Background: Nitric oxide is involved in diverse physiological and pathological conditions, including those of the female reproductive tract. As it has a very short half-life, it is measured as nitrate ... Read More

Background: Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne infection that in recent decades have become an important global public health issue. It can be fatal but preventable. Public awareness, perception and beh ... Read More

Naegleria fowleri is a free-living, thermophilic protist belonging to phylum Percolozoa, typically found in warm bodies of fresh water, such as ponds, lakes, rivers, and hot springs. It is also found ... Read More