Cervical schwannoma is an extremely rare tumour. It usually occurs in the third and fourth decades of life. Both sexes are equally affected. Usual presentation is slow growing lateral neck mass. These ... Read More

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) can have extranodal presentation in approximately 25% of cases, unlike Hodgkin’s lymphoma which rarely involves extranodal sites. The diagnosis of extranodal lymphoma in t ... Read More

ABSTRACT Background: Lithium carbonate is commonly used as mood stabilizing agent but it is so toxic that even its therapeutic dose can cause toxicity. Present work was design with the aim that whet ... Read More

Background: During pregnancy hypertension is an important medical problem and is major cause of maternal mortality thus antihypertensive drugs are used to reduce the risk of developing severe hyperten ... Read More

ABSTRACT Background: Hobo syndrome is a dispositional wanderlust that leads some individuals to repeatedly switch jobs This study examines the antecedents of Hobo Syndrome in Banking, Health and Deve ... Read More

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine the frequency of common modifiable risk factors of stroke. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Study was conduct ... Read More

Background: Homicide is defined as killing of one human being by another human being. The various patterns of homicidal deaths include assault by sharp weapon, blunt weapon, firearm, strangulation, ho ... Read More

Background: Foreign body inhalation is a common problem in children. In our setup beads are available in the form of cheap jewelry and prayer beads. With improvement in endoscopic technology for extr ... Read More

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the rate of faecal incontinence and recurrence in patients with high fistula in ano treated with Polypropylene (prolene-1) as cutting seton. MATERI ... Read More

BACKGROUND: Trends in poisoning are changing in our country. Street and Travel related poisoning is emerging as a new public health issue. This is the first study in this region to know the types of ... Read More

Background: Urinary tract infections are one of the most common infections especially in young adults. Due to increase in fluoroquinolones use, empirical therapy in uncomplicated urinary tract infecti ... Read More

Background: FNAC is considered as a reliable and inexpensive test for diagnosing lymphadenopathy cases with a high degree of accuracy. The objective of this study was to determine the cytomorphologica ... Read More

Background: Blood disorders are very common ranging from anemias to hematological malignancies. Bone marrow aspiration is a key investigation for hematological disorders. The objective of this study w ... Read More

Background: Ventriculoperitoneal shunt is the commonest treatment modality of established hydrocephalous. The objective of this study was to determine the sex and age distribution, post op year of shu ... Read More

Poliomyelitis is a highly contagious disease that can lead to severe disability but it is preventable by vaccination and improved standards of living. It spreads from person to person via faecal-oral ... Read More

The transdermal route is considered an efficacious and innovative route in drug delivery and is attaining the consideration of pharmaceutical scientists for the last two decades. For a successful tran ... Read More

Echinococosis (which is often referred as hydatid disease) is an infection caused by larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus complex, E multiocularis or E vogeli. When it lodges in the brain, a solita ... Read More

Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) denotes the presence of blood within the subarachnoid space. The sensitivity of CT scan to the presence of SAH is strongly influenced by both the amount of blood and the ... Read More

Background: Excessive bleeding is one of the major threats to women at childbirth. Blood loss during cesarean section is usually underestimated. The objective of this study was to compare the effects ... Read More

Background: Ivanissevich procedure is commonly practiced in district hospitals for the management of varicocele. However, the complications associated with this procedure are considered to be higher a ... Read More

Background: The increasing rate of maternal obesity provides a major challenge to obstetric practice. Maternal obesity can result in negative outcomes for both women and fetuses. The objective of this ... Read More

Background: The use of phenyl mercuric acetate as fungicides and herbicides has much increased in the recent years hence there are greater chances of mercury uptake by humans. The objective of this st ... Read More

Background: Along with many factors vitamin D is considered to have role in lower backache. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of vitamin D in patients of low backache. Material ... Read More

Background: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) continues to be a major public health problem in developing countries like Pakistan. There is no data regarding the prevalence of RHD in our part of country. ... Read More

Background: Hyperprolactinaemia is a common side-effect of antipsychotic treatment and the clinical conse¬quences associated with this can have a negative impact on patients compliance. The aim of thi ... Read More

Background: Measles is a major killer in children worldwide. Immunization has a main role in reduction of morbidity and mortality of the disease. The objective of this study was to compare the gender, ... Read More

Background: Genetic variation in the interleukin 28B (IL28B) gene has been associated with response to Interferon-α & Ribavirin (IFN+Riba) therapy in hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1-infected patien ... Read More

Background: Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis of human and warm-blooded animals caused by the parasitic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. This parasite is distributed worldwide. It causes severe congenital abnor ... Read More

Ebola virus disease is one of the viral hemorrhagic fevers with very high mortality. Primary cases have been known to arise from direct human contact with blood and body fluids of infected animals. Se ... Read More

Sebaceous carcinoma is a very rare tumor of the salivary glands with most of the reported cases involving the parotid gland. We report a case of sebaceous carcinoma of right parotid gland of a 51 year ... Read More

Herpes Zoster or shingles is an acute vesicular eruption due to Varicella zoster virus. It usually occurs in adults. With rare exceptions patients suffer only one attack. Herpes lesions consist of gr ... Read More

Background: Malaria is a public health problem and affects 40% of the world population. According to WHO 97% of the Pakistani population is at risk of contracting malaria with nationwide burden of 1.6 ... Read More

Background: Steroids are common drugs that can lead to induction of glaucoma or ocular hypertension in humans. The aim of this study was to check whether steroids can be used to induce experimental gl ... Read More

Background: Perineal gangrene is a serious and relatively frequent disease in Africa and particularly in Côte d’Ivoire. The aim of this study was to show etiology, presentation, and management in dev ... Read More

Background: The prevalence of hepatitis C infection is high in Pakistan. Up till now six genotypes have been identified. Genotype 3 is the most prevalent form in Pakistan. However, studies have shown ... Read More

Background: Foreign body aspiration claims thousands of lives each year.1It is the fourth leading accidental cause of death under three years of age and the third cause of death under one year of age. ... Read More

Background: Gastro-esophageal reflux disease is a chronic gastrointestinal condition characterized by heartburn and regurgitation caused by the reflux of gastric contents. It is a motility disorder pr ... Read More

Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is the commonest enzymopathy in human beings. Acute hemolytic crisis is the most common presentation of G6PD deficiency but in neonatal period it usually ... Read More

Background: Patients of hematological malignancies are reported to be deficient in folate and vitamin B12. The aim of this study was to estimate serum folate and vitamin B12 levels in children with h ... Read More

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a major metabolic disorder. The word compliance describes the extent to which the patient's behavior matches with health care provider's recommendations .The aim of t ... Read More

Diabetics are at increased risk of developing hepatitis c infection owing to the nature of the disease and its inherent complications or frequent parenteral exposure. On the other hand HCV infection m ... Read More

Background: Teratomas are usually derived from all the three germinal layers. They present as cysts filled with abundant sebaceous material with hair and may contain cartilage, teeth and bone. Solid t ... Read More

ABSRACT Background: Gastric carcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths in the world and the fourth most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. Curative therapy for gastric cancer i ... Read More

Background: Urolithiasis is the commonest cause of acute urinary tract obstruction. Acute obstructive uropathies can lead to acute and chronic renal failure. This study was aimed to determine the fre ... Read More

Background: Rapid growth in the number of hospitals globally is leading to increased hospital waste production jeopardizing humans and environment. This survey was conducted to assess hospital waste ... Read More

Background: This study was conducted to identify the different acquired causes of anemia on the basis of bone marrow examination in children admitted to the pediatric Unit of Rehman Medical Institute ... Read More

Background: The objective of this study was to determine the visual outcome after cataract surgery in patients with penetrating ocular trauma. Material & Methods: It was a retrospective case series o ... Read More

Background: Coal mining is considered as one of the dangerous occupations globally and poses many health problems to coal miners due to production and dispersion of fine coal dusts. This study was con ... Read More

Background: Cadmium causes oxidative stress because this metal lacerate antioxidant defense system in intracellular as well as extra cellular compartments resulting in depletion of reduced glutathione ... Read More

“I am an internally displaced person (IDP)” a patient forgot to tell his chief complaints and instead narrated the story of his journey from Miranshah city of South Waziristan Agency to D.I.Khan, Khyb ... Read More

Renal involvement either interstitial nephritis or glomerulonephritis have been seldom noticed in isolated cases of primary Sjogren’s syndrome (pSS). In pSS, renal involvement is primarily due to a mo ... Read More

Ventriculoperitoneal shunts are one of the common treatments for management of hydrocephalus and shunt migration is a significant problem with a reported incidence of up to 10%. A 4 month old infant p ... Read More

This is a pictorial history of a 55 years old man, having trauma with a thorn of date palm tree two days back. He presented with self sealed corneal perforation, large perforation of the anterior lens ... Read More

Background: Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy is the modality of choice for the surgical management of stones. The objective of this study was to share our experience regarding the safety and efficacy of f ... Read More

Studies on fatal firearm injuries have been published in various countries. However, their pattern and incidence in various regions of Pakistan has largely gone unreported. Objective: The aim of the ... Read More

Background: Pulmonary artery banding is a palliative surgical procedure used as a staged-approach to operative correction of congenital heart defects leading to right ventricular volume overload and p ... Read More

Background: Nasal bone fractures are the commonest type of the bony facial injuries seen in emergency department because of the prominent position of the nose on facial skeleton. The objec ... Read More

Background: Distal radius fracture is common in all age groups and close reduction is effective method of management. The objective of this study was to determine the pain lowering effect of hematoma ... Read More

Background: Enterococci are the most common cause of healthcare associated urinary tract infections. The frequency of isolation of enterococci from urinary tract of hospitalized patients has risen. Va ... Read More

Objective: To study maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality during elective trial of labor in singleton term Pregnancies with one previous caesarian section due to non-recurrent causes. ... Read More

Background: The endotracheal tube is considered the standard for airway control and protection during general anaesthesia, especially when the airway is ‘shared’ between the anaesthetist and the surge ... Read More

Oral dosage forms are increasing exponentially on pharmacy shelves in the market, and this growth is expected to continue in the years to come more efficiently. The growth might be due to many factors ... Read More